Shiao et al., 2012. The Genomic Challenge to the Social Construction of Race
Figueredo et al., 2012. The measurement of Human Life History strategy
Nyborg, 2012. A conversation with J. Philippe Rushton
Hur, 2012. J.P. Rushton’s contribution to the study of altruism
Jensen, 2012. Rushton’s contributions to the study of mental ability
Tal, 2009. From heritability to probability
Gottfredson, 1997. Why g matters: The complexity of every day life
Nyborg and Jensen, 1999. Occupation and income related to psychometric g
(Matched for g (not merely IQ), Whites are disadvantaged with respect to income and occupation.)
(Analysis of six large data sets. Racial/ethnic groups share the same development processes; no X-factors.)
Rowe and Cleveland, 1996. Academic Achievement in Blacks and Whites: Are the Developmental Processes Similar?
(Best fit model indicates that differences are due to environmental and genetic factors.)
Rowe, 1997. Group Differences in Developmental Processes The Exception; Rowe. No More Than Skin Deep
(Commentary. Racial/ethnic groups share the same development processes.)
(Bi-racism is the new colorism, author argues.)
Scarr and Weinberg. IQ Test Performance of Black Children Adopted by White Families; The Minnesota Adoption Studies: Genetic Differences and Malleability; Racial-Group Differences in IQ in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study: A Reply to Levin and Lynn
(MTRAS results and discussions.)
Nisbett, 2011. The Achievement Gap: Past, Present & Future
(Summary of environmental case.)
Acs, 2011. Downward Mobility from the Middle Class
(Nothing new here — regression to the mean.)
(A possible gene of large effect.)
Tanser, 1941. Intelligence of Negroes of Mixed Blood in Canada
(African/European reaction time differences. Comment: interpreted culturally; sociologist fallacy.)
(Score differences found not comparable, again.)
(A partial explanation to the regional variation in the US?)
(Compare with Jensen and Nyborg’s results above.)
Goldsmith et al. From Dark to Light: Skin Color and Wages Among African-Americans.
(More colorism research. Suggestion: Cross-assortative mating for color and human capital characteristics.)
Fagan and Holland, 2009. Culture-fair prediction of academic achievement
(Waiting for a replication.)
Hacking. Why race still matters
(What passes for the philosophy of biology these days: “About the same time that The Bell Curve was published, ogre naturalists, such as Philippe Rushton in Race, Evolution, and Behavior, made more sweeping claims to biologically grounded racial differences. They claimed that the races are distinguished by many properties rightly prized or feared for different strengths and weaknesses. If that were true, then races would exactly ½t Mill’s de½nition of a real Kind… One deplores both Rushton and The Bell Curve, but there is an absolutely fundamental logical difference between what the two assert. Rushton claimed that the races are real Kinds. One imagines that Herrnstein and Murray thought so too, but what they claimed was that the races are statistically signi½cant classes. And they implied that this is statistically meaningful. Despite the fact that his doctrines have a centuries-old pedigree, we can dismiss the egregious Rushton. We can also refute Murray and Herrnstein.4 Mill’s type of naturalism has contempt for both doctrines. Loathing of these quite recent doctrines and their predecessors has, not surprisingly, produced revulsion against any sort of naturalism about race.”)
Edwards and Oakland, 2006. Factorial Invariance of Woodcock-Johnson III Scores for African Americans and Caucasian Americans
(No psychometric bias in the Woodcock-Johnson III.)
(Gap grows with age. Comment: rules out prenatal causes.)
(The Jewish-Gentile social outcome gap that no one cares about. And it’s bee cause of culture.)
Thalheimer and Cook, 2002. How to calculate effect sizes from published research: A simplified methodology
(Comment: simple formulas that come in handy when calculating the magnitude of a subpopulation difference.)
Charles, 2011. Say it out loud: I’m Black and I’m proud?
(Blacks are proud to be Blacks. Education not a moderator.)
Duncan and Magnuson, 2005. Can Family Socioeconomic Resources Account for Racial and Ethnic Test Score Gaps?
(SES can statistically explain 50% of the difference at young ages. Comment: But (not mentioned by the authors) at older ages, parental SES statistically explains less, which should not be surprising, given the behavioral genetic findings on the within-population relation between IQ and SES. Authors: “Accounting studies find that differences in socioeconomic status explain about half a standard deviation of the initial achievement gaps. But because none of the accounting studies is able to adjust for a full set of genetic and other confounding causes of achievement, we regard them as providing upper-bound estimates of the role of family socioeconomic status.”)
Reardon and Galindo, 2006. Patterns of Hispanic Students’ Math and English Literacy Test Scores in the Early Elementary Grades A Report to the National Task Force on Early Childhood Education for Hispanics
(Not all ethnoracial differences behave the same in relation to age and SES. See table B11, etc.)
(A really fascinating paper if you follow the larger debate.)
Meisenberg, 2010. Secularization and Desecularization in Our Time
(Institutional racism — but it’s positive!)
(I love those old studies.)
(Not identical. More g mysteries.)
(This much cited article was actually rather nuanced. Whatever the case the results haven’t held.)
Walker and Bridgeman, 2008. Stereotype Threat Spillover and SAT® Scores
(“Whatever the reason for the generally null results in this real-life test administration, it was not statistical power, as this particular study could detect effect sizes of less than 0.05 standard deviations. Thus, like other studies using data from high-stakes operational settings (e.g., Cullen et al., 2004, 2006; Stricker and Ward, 2004), this study showed little evidence consistent with a stereotype threat hypothesis.”)
Masters1 and Bragg, 1999. Morphological Correlates of Speciation in Bush Babies
(But the 75% rule doesn’t apply when it comes to humans — because that would be racist. Quote: “Mayr (1969, p. 190) coined the 75% rule: for subspecies to be valid … Individuals from 4 subspecies of Otolemur crassicaudatus could be distinguished with a 72% strike rate using all 8 characters.”)
Groves, 2002. The What, Why and How of Primate Taxonomy
(But, Hacking et al. tells us, hypothetical human subspecies need to be “natural kinds.” Quote: The keys here are (1) subspecies are populations, geographic segments of a species, not morphs co-occurring with other variants, and (2) they differ from each other on average, not absolutely. The so-called 75% rule, which I have used above, is only a rule-of-thumb, but it becomes rather meaningless to single out populations in which much less than this proportion is distinctive. Unlike species, subspecies have no whatness. They share genes with other subspecies of the same species, so their interrelationships are genetically reticulate. In some taxonomic schools of thought they have no place at all, though it seems to me that it is useful to focus on populations that differ as whole but not absolutely. Subspecies should not be reified: they are simply the point along the continuum of population differentiation, from identity to species, at which it becomes worthwhile to give them a scientific name.)
(Human racial, er population, developmental differences in cranial capacity and eye orbit size.)
Lieberman and Jackson, 1995. Race and Three Models of Human Origin
(Contains a specificity critique of Brues’ and Boyd’s race definition. Comment: This is equivalent to arguing that “genetic population” is too indefinite to have “scientific meaning.” Taxonomic meaning versus scientific meaning. More word games.)
Oftendal, 2004. Heritability and Genetic Causation
(Comment: Oftendal maintains that the disagreement is due to conceptual confusion. Agreed. Except that the confusion has been purposefully sowed.)
(Chance and genes.)
Franbourg, et al., 2009. Current research on ethnic hair
(Some would use the term “racial” instead of “ethnic.” Quote: Human hair is categorized into 3 major distinct groups according to ethnic origin: Asian, Caucasian, and African.”)
(Comment: One could make the case that there are just two human subspecies. Out-of-Africans and Sub-Saharan Africans. Quote: “Assuming that phenetic expression approximates genetic variation, previous dental morphological analyses of Sub-Saharan Africans by the author show they are unique among the world’s modern populations.”)
Hardison et al., 2010. The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test: Validity, Fairness, and Bias
(SATs show less adverse impact than the AFOQT for Asians, but that’s
not the type of adversity in need of reduction.)
(Quote: “The major racial groups of the world are broadly classified as Caucasoids, Mongoloids, Negroids and Australoids (Australian aborigines). In Peninsular Malaya …)
Hanihara, et al., 2003. Characterization of Biological Diversity Through Analysis of Discrete Cranial Traits
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(“The concerting power of G comes from the dynamic inter-relations that it enforces between the various players involved (attention, WM, inference, etc.) rather than from the players sharing common components (van der Maas et al., 2006).”)
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(The author incredibly — or not — contends that disparate impact is ipso facto institutional discrimination)
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