I’ll comment on this latter. For now, I’ll borrow JL’s pithy review:
“They frame the paper as an update of the 1996 APA report, but I don’t think it can be characterized as one. That’s because the authors of the 1996 report were a relatively balanced combination of hereditarians and environmentalists, whereas this new paper was written by people who are all firmly in the environmentalist camp. All of the authors are well-known for advancing some strong environmentalist positions, and the paper gives lots of space to their pet theories and interpretations — for example, Aronson and stereotype threat, Halpern and sex differences, Turkheimer and SES-heritability interaction, Dickens & Flynn and G-E correlation, Nisbett and environmental interventions etc.”
Nisbett, Aronson, Blair, Dickens, Flynn, Halpern, and Turkheimer.
(2012, January 2). Intelligence: New Findings and Theoretical Developments. American
Psychologist. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0026699
We review new findings and new theoretical developments in the field of intelligence. New findings include the following: (a) Heritability of IQ varies significantly by social class. (b) Almost no genetic polymorphisms have been discovered that are consistently associated with variation in IQ in the normal range. (c) Much has been learned about the biological underpinnings of intelligence. (d) “Crystallized” and “fluid” IQ are quite different aspects of intelligence at both the behavioral and biological levels. (e) The importance of the environment for IQ is established by the 12-point to 18-point increase in IQ when children are adopted from working-class to middle-class homes. (f) Even when improvements in IQ produced by the most effective early childhood interventions fail to persist, there can be very marked effects on academic achievement and life outcomes. (g) In most developed countries studied, gains on IQ tests have continued, and they are beginning in the developing world. (h) Sex differences in aspects of intelligence are due partly to identifiable biological factors and partly to socialization factors. (i) The IQ gap between Blacks and Whites has been reduced by 0.33 SD in recent years. We report theorizing concerning (a) the relationship between working memory and intelligence, (b) the apparent contradiction between strong heritability effects on IQ and strong secular effects on IQ, (c) whether a general intelligence factor could arise from initially largely independent cognitive skills, (d) the relation between self-regulation and cognitive skills, and (e) the effects of stress on intelligence.